If you are gentle brushing your hair out and do not RIP RIP RIP away as you are brushing out your locks, your hair will sustain minimal damage. In face, having locked hair is somewhat protective as a style. You minimize heat treatments (blow drying, flat ironing, curling) as well as product usage (drying hair sprays etc). You also spend years just not brushing it, which also minimizes breakage and damage.
Your hair, when it comes out of the locks, will have a bunched-up tangled shape.
This is similar to taking your hair out of braids- the hair has a wavy, braided shape when you take the braids out.
However, once you get the hair wet and condition it, your hair will spring back to its original texture! (Another parallel is that straightening curly hair doesn’t ruin its texture, and once you get it wet, the curls spring right back!).
Having locked hair is like having hair in tight braids for a long time, but instead of braids, it is knots! You can gently remove your locks, and your hair texture will be fine.
Your hair texture and curl pattern are chemically unique to your hair. The chemical structure of your hair is set, and unless you chemically alter it (getting a perm or getting a relaxer), it will stay the same. Curly hair has more disulfide bonds than straight hair.
Locking hair is a physical change. This physical change cannot alter the chemical properties of your hair- just like braids don’t leave your hair permanently wavy.
Usually people will get 1-2 inches or a bit more trimmed off the tips of their locks after removing them because the ends of the hair tend to be a bit weathered and have some split ends, but otherwise, you will have healthy hair after locks.
Be good to your hair and it will be good to you!