I doubt this would be damaging unless you are pulling your hair very tightly or wearing them in the same position all the time. Otherwise, it shouldn’t be a problem!
Also, don’t put the chopsticks through your actual locks- the holes you make would hinder their locking progress a bit (I know it sounds pretty common sense- I’m saying it just in case!!).
Another helpful tip for you is that instead of buying regular hairties, you should buy stretchy headbands and use those as hair bands now. They’ll be much bigger and much less likely to break when you tie your locks back.